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Title: Demography, territory, and identity of indigenous peoples in Brazil: The Xavante indians and the 2000 Brazilian National Census
Authors: Pereira, Nilza de Oliveira Martins
Santos, Ricardo Ventura
Welch, James R.
Souza, Luciene G.
Coimbra Junior, Carlos Everaldo Alvares
Affilliation: Sem afiliação
Abstract: Brazilian census data show a remarkable increase in the population self-reporting as “indigenous” between 1991 and 2000 but do not readily enable that increase to be analyzed in terms of the nearly 200 specific indigenous societies or ethnicities that exist in Brazil. In this article, we investigate some instances and implications of how the 2000 Brazilian National Census employed categories conceived for the national population to register one specific people—the Xavante of Mato Grosso, Central Brazil—with their own inherent social arrangements and morphologies. We do so by comparing census data corresponding to Xavante Indigenous Reserves with an independently collected set of demographic data for the same year. Although we found census data to adequately represent basic characteristics of the Xavante population (population size and age and sex distributions), we also found they reclassified and transformed Xavante households and thereby denatured Xavante sociality of its demographic and sociocultural complexity. The Xavante case is an example of how national demographic censuses not only capture data regarding indigenous peoples but also help shape those data by contributing to how indigenousness is perceived. Our findings suggest that the Brazilian National Census should seek to be more sensitive to indigenous realities and thereby to assess more accurately fundamental aspects of indigenous societies.
Keywords: Brasil
Índios Sul-Americanos
Saúde de Populações Indígenas
Mato Grosso
Região Amazônica
Região Centro-Oeste
Antropologia Cultural
Demografia Indígena
DeCS: Brasil
Saúde de Populações Indígenas
Índios Sul-Americanos
Ecossistema Amazônico
Antropologia Cultural
Distribuição por Etnia
Grupos Étnicos
Issue Date: 2009
Publisher: Society for Applied Anthropology
Citation: PEREIRA, Nilza de Oliveira Martins et al. Demography, territory, and identity of indigenous peoples in Brazil: The Xavante indians and the 2000 Brazilian National Census. Human Organization, v. 68, n. 2, p. 166-180, 2009.
metadata.dc.identifier.doi: 0018-7259/09/020166-15$2.00/1
ISSN: 0018-7259/09/020166-15$2.00/1
Other Identifiers: 0018-7259/09/020166-15$2.00/1
Copyright: restricted access
Appears in Collections:TR - Artigos de Periódicos

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