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Title: Urban and architectural risk factors for malaria in indigenous Amazonian settlements in Brazil: a typological analysis
Authors: Leandro-Reguillo, Patricia
Thomson-Luque, Richard
Monteiro, Wuelton M.
Lacerda, Marcus V. G. de
Abstract: In the Amazon, m alaria is highly endemic in indigenous populations, which are often considered one of the last barriers to malaria elimination due to geographic isolation. Although the improvement of housing conditions is a good strategy towards the control and prevention of vector-borne diseases, such as malaria, this preventive practice has been barely undertaken in Latin America. An analysis of the architectural and urban features of indigenous Amazonian populations is essential to define and adapt these vector control measures. A total of 32 villages of 29 different ethnicities were studied and mapped by reviewing literature and visual information, and using a geographic information system. The most important architectural and urban characteristics influencing malaria were analysed according to the following categories: number of households and dimensions, supporting area, openings, materials, lifespan and location. Housing typologies found were classified within each of these variables. The results of this typological analysis included an easy-to-handle working template and revealing of features that benefit or hamper the presence of malaria vectors in Amerindians communities. Among risk factors, presence of open eaves, permeable walls, open-side constructions, large number of sleepers indoors, temporary-ephemeral houses, linear villages along stream banks, houseboats villages, poor urban drainage and villages surrounded by anthropogenic environments were highlighted. Indigenous settlements very permissive for anophelines were identified in ethnic groups, such as the Yanomami, Palikur, Paumari, Waimiri-Atroari and Wajãpi. Positive features were also recognized, including opaque and closed houses, large radial villages on bare soil, highly elevated stilted houses and the fire indoors, found among the Yawalapiti, Ashaninka, and Gavião-Parkatejê tribes. However, as Amazonian indigenous settlement typologies vary greatly even among villages of the same ethnic group, it is imperative to undertake an individual study for each community. Using the working template in Amazonian settlements it is possible to obtain data that will help researchers not only understand how architectural and urban features affect transmission, but also define vector control measures easily applicable by health authorities and acceptable by these communities
Keywords: Brazil
Health of Indigenous Peoples
Indians, South American
Vector Control
Amazonian Ecosystem
Keywords: Região Norte
Região Amazônica
Região Centro-Oeste
DeCS: Brasil
Saúde de Populações Indígenas
Índios Sul-Americanos
Fatores de Risco
Condições Socioeconômicas
Qualidade do Ambiente Doméstico
Issue Date: 2015
Publisher: BioMed Central
Citation: LEANDRO-REGUILLO, P.; et al. Urban and architectural risk factors for malaria in indigenous Amazonian settlements in Brazil: a typological analysis. Malaria Journal, v. 14, n. 284, 2015.
metadata.dc.identifier.doi: 10.1186/s12936-015-0806-0
ISSN: 1475-2875
Copyright: open access
Appears in Collections:DIP - Artigos de Periódicos

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